Affinity Laws are equations of proportionality that show how changes in impeller diameter [D], or rotative speed [N], affect the pump capacity [Q], differential head [H], and required brake horsepower [HP].Affinity Laws are also known as Affinity Equations.
According to Affinity Laws (or Affinity Equations):
Capacity is directly proportional to impeller diameter, or speed:
Q2 = Q1 x [ D2 / D1 ] Q2 = Q1 x [ N2 / N1 ]
Head is directly proportional to the square of impeller diameter, or speed:
H2 = H1 x [ D2 / D1 ] ^2 H2 = H1 x [ N2 / N1 ] ^2
Horsepower is directly proportional to the cube of impeller diameter , or speed:
HP2 = HP1 x [ D2 / D1 ] ^3 HP2 = HP1 x [ N2 / N1 ] ^3
If both diameter and speed are changed, the equations are combined to become:
Q2 = Q1 x [(D2 x N2) / (D1 x N1)]
H2 = H1 x [(D2 x N2) / (D1 x N1)] ^2
HP2 = HP1 x [(D2 x N2) / (D1 x N1)] ^3
The subscript 1 is for initial condition, subscript 2 is for new condition, and ^ is an exponential symbol.
The equations can be rearranged to calculate either the diameter, or speed, if the other parameters were known. The term head refers to differential head, not the discharge head.
The equations are valid for U.S. customary units, metric system, or other units that consistent units are used in the calculations.
The affinity equations do not imply that an impeller diameter, or speed, can be changed arbitrarily. There are certain limits on how much they can be increased, or decreased. These limitations are discussed in separate articles.
The Affinity Laws are based on the same fundamentals as the Similarity Laws (or Laws of Similitude.) The main difference is in their use and application. Affinity Laws are used to predict the change in performance within the same pump, whereas Similarity Laws (also known as Modeling Laws) are used to extrapolate the performance of one pump to predict the performance of another pump of similar geometric or kinematic model.
On what types of pumps are the affinity laws applicable?
The affinity laws are accurate only under what specific condition? What should be done if this condition were not met?
How should the equations be applied to viscous performance curves?
Are the equations applicable to reverse-running centrifugal pump acting as hydraulic power recovery turbine (HPRT)?
The answers to these questions are excluded in this beta version, and are included in the full version, of this article. Read more. Send comments.